• Language/Grammar Review of Some Topics Covered This Year

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    You may use the list below to refresh your memory before our testing weeks.


    1. Story ElementsSetting- where and when the story takes place, Characters- who the story is about, Plot- what happens to the characters in the setting (often a problem to solve)

    2. Folktale- fictional stories passed down for generations before being written down. No known author.

    3. Fable- fictional stories (usually fantasy) with a lesson (moral) to learn at the end. Often the main characters are animals.

    4. Non-fiction- factual information ex: biography, personal experience, news stories, textbooks, encyclopedias, content books, etc.

    5. Fiction- any story that did not happen (I took my pet dog for a walk.)

    6. Fantasy- fictional stories that could NEVER happen (My pet dog can fly.)

    7. Poetry- usually shorter that prose with rich sensory language that creates a mental and/or emotional image

    8. Figurative language- language that has meaning apart from the literal meaning of the words

    9. Simile- compares two things using like or as (a form of figurative language)

    10. Metaphor- compares two things without using like or as (a form of figurative language)

    11. Prefixes-added to the beginning of a word to change its meaning. Ex: re (do again) rewrap, un (not) unhappy, dis (not or undo) dislike, disappear

    12. Suffixes-added to the end of a word to change its meaning. Ex: ful (full of) hopeful, ly (in a certain manner) sadly, y (full of) rocky, less (lack of) thoughtless

    13. Antonyms- words that have opposite meanings Ex: hot-cold, difficult-easy

    14. Synonyms- words that have similar meanings Ex: glad-happy, skinny-thin

    15. Homophones- words that sound the same but are different Ex: to, two, too bough, bow

    16. Noun- person, place, or thing, Proper Nouns- names of people, places, products, etc. (Must be capitalized.) Plural Nouns-nouns that represent more than one thing, Possessive Nouns-shows ownership/uses 's or s', Pronouns- words used to replace nouns like; he, she, it, they, we, etc.

    17. Verb- action word, helping verb(to be), linking verb (to be, to have)

    18. Adjective- descriptive word (size, color, number, appearance, etc)

    19. Adverb- describes verbs or adjectives. Ex: fast, quickly, slowly, ferociously, very, brightly

    20. Subject- the part that tells who or what the sentence is about

    21. Predicate- the part that tells what the subject does or thinks in the sentence

    22. Compound word- two words combined to create a new word with a unique meaning(sidewalk)

    23. Contraction- two words combined with one or more letters removed and replaced with an apostrophe

    24. Possessive- ownership- usually expressed with an 's, dog's collar, baby's bottle

    25. Plural- more than one

    26. Comma- used to separate things in a list, in dialogue, to separate phrases, etc.

    27. Quotation marks- Used to mark dialogue and titles- Ex: John said, "Please, pass the peas."